The oligopoly is probably the second most common market structure. If oligopolies are the result of patented innovation or the use of economies of scale to produce low-cost average costs, they can bring significant benefits to consumers. Oligopolies are often hit by significant barriers to access that allow oligopolists to make lasting profits over long periods of time. Oligopolies also generally do not produce with the minimum of their average cost curves. If they lack strong competition, they could not be encouraged to offer innovative products and quality services. J. E. Harrington: 2006. How do the cartels work? Now Publishers Inc. Hinloopen, J.
(2006). Internal stability of agreements with time-related detection probabilities. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 24 (6), 1213-1229. Levenstein, M.C., Suslow, V. Y. (2006). What determines the success of the cartel? Journal of Economic Literature, XLIV, 43-95. An example of the pressure these companies can exert on each other is the demand curve, in which competing oligopolies companies commit to harmonizing price declines, but not price increases. This situation is illustrated in Figure 1. Say that an oligopoly company has agreed with the rest of a cartel to provide 10,000 seats on the road from New York to Los Angeles for a price of $500. This selection defines the elbow in the demand curve perceived by the company. The reason the company is facing a demand curve is how other oligopolists react to the company`s price changes.
If the oligopoly decides to produce more and lower its price, the other cartel members will immediately face cheap price declines – and therefore a lower price results in a very small increase in the quantity sold. Ayres, I. (1987). As cartels punish: a structural theory of self-imposed collusion. Colombia Law Review, 87, 295-325.B. L. Spar. The advantage of cooperation: the domestic policy of international cartels. Cornell University Press. “Member[name club], [C] is right – we report on everything that needs to be reported, but we also see from the order of the numbers [phases of the lunar system] that it seems that there are only two companies still reporting. The rest of them do nothing or are silent.
Just when times are tough, it is useful and necessary that we stay in touch (…). We agreed on that. Or is [the environmental certification serial number that these companies need to do business in this market] the end of the [club name]? That`s not possible. Show a little personality and courage – this attitude leads to nothing, nothing at all. (3) Perhaps the best-known and most effective cartel in the world is OPEC, the Organization of petroleum exporting countries. In 1973, OPEC members reduced their oil production. As we know that middle Eastern crude oil had few substitutes, the profits of OPEC members exploded.